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Spain History - Muslims Iberia

In the 8th century, nearly all of the Iberian Peninsula was conquered (711-718) by Muslim armies from North Africa. These conquests were part of the expansion of the Umayyad Islamic Empire.[note 10] Only a number of areas in the north of the Iberian Peninsula managed to resist the initial invasion and they were the starters of the Reconquista. These areas roughly corresponding to modern Asturias, Cantabria, Navarre and northern Aragon.

Under Islam, Christians and Jews were recognised as "peoples of the book", and were free to practice their religion, but faced a number of mandatory discriminations and penalties as dhimmis. Conversion to Islam proceeded at a steadily increasing pace. Following the mass conversions in the 10th and 11th centuries it is believed that Muslims came to outnumber Christians in the remaining Muslim controlled areas. The muladies comprised the majority of the population of Al-Andalus by the end of the 10th century.

The Muslim community in the Iberian peninsula was itself diverse and beset by social tensions. The Berber people of North Africa, who had provided the bulk of the invading armies, clashed with the Arab leadership from the Middle East. Over time, large Moorish populations became established, especially in the Guadalquivir River valley, the coastal plain of Valencia, and in the mountainous region of Granada.

Córdoba, the capital of the caliphate, was the largest, richest and most sophisticated city of medieval western Europe. Mediterranean trade and cultural exchange flourished. Muslims imported a rich intellectual tradition from the Middle East and North Africa. Muslim and Jewish scholars played an important part in reviving and expanding classical Greek learning in Western Europe. The Romanized cultures of the Iberian peninsula interacted with Muslim and Jewish cultures in complex ways, thus giving the region a distinctive culture. Outside the cities, where the vast majority lived, the land ownership system from Roman times remained largely intact as Muslim leaders rarely dispossessed landowners, and the introduction of new crops and techniques led to a remarkable expansion of agriculture.

However, by the 11th century, Muslim holdings had fractured into rival Taifa kingdoms, allowing the small Christian states the opportunity to greatly enlarge their territories and consolidate their positions. The arrival of the North African Muslim ruling sects of the Almoravids and the Almohads restored unity upon Muslim holdings, with a stricter, less tolerant application of Islam, but ultimately, after some successes in invading the north, proved unable to resist the increasing military strength of the Christian states.

Source: Wikipedia Encyclopedia

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Spain

About Spain
Geography of Spain
Climate of Spain

Spain History
Prehistory and Pre-Roman Peoples
Roman Empire and the
Germanic Kingdoms

Muslim Iberia
Fall of Muslim Rule and Unification
Imperial Spain
Napoleonic Rule and Its Consequences
Spanish-American War
20th Century of Spain
21st Century of Spain

Spain Politics
Constitution of Spain
Government of Spain
Administrative Divisions
Foreign Relations of Spain

Spain Economy
Demographics of Spain
Immigration to Spain
People / Languages of Spain
Spain Religions

Culture of Spain
Spain Schools
Literature of Spain
Real Academia Española
Art of Spain
Cinema in Spain
Spain Architecture
Spain Music
Cuisines in Spain
Sports in Spain
Spain Holidays

Spain Places and Attractions
Murcia Major Attractions

Spain World Heritage Sites
Granada Heritage Sites
Cordoba Heritage Sites
Seville Heritage Sites
Úbeda & Baeza Heritage Sites
Aragon Heritage Sites
Galicia Heritage Sites
Cantabria Heritage Sites
Asturias Heritage Sites
Ibiza Heritage Sites
Basque Country Heritage Sites
Canary Islands Heritage Sites
Toledo Heritage Sites
Castilla La Mancha Heritage Sites
Castile & Leon Heritage Sites
Catalonia Heritage Sites
Extremadura Heritage Sites
La Rioja Heritage Sites
Madrid Heritage Sites



Holiday Planning

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