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Spain History - Fall of Muslim Rule and Unification

The Reconquista ("Reconquest") is the centuries-long period of expansion of Spain's Christian kingdoms; Reconquista is viewed as beginning with the battle of Covadonga in 722 and being concurrent with the period of Muslim rule on the Iberian peninsula. The Christian army's victory over the Muslim forces led to the creation of the Christian Kingdom of Asturias along the northern coastal mountains. Muslim armies had also moved north of the Pyrenees, but they were defeated at the Battle of Poitiers in France. Subsequently, they retreated to more secure positions south of the Pyrenees with a frontier marked by the Ebro and Duero rivers in Spain. As early as 739 Muslim forces were driven from Galicia, which was to host one of medieval Europe's holiest sites, Santiago de Compostela. A little later Frankish forces established Christian counties south of the Pyrenees; these areas were to grow into kingdoms, in the north-east and the western part of the Pyrenees. These territories included Navarre, Aragon and Catalonia.

The breakup of Al-Andalus into the competing Taifa kingdoms helped the expanding Christian kingdoms. The capture of Toledo in 1085 was soon followed by the completion of the Christian powers reconquest of Spain's northern half. After a Muslim resurgence in the 12th century, the great Moorish strongholds in the south fell to Christian Spain in the 13th century—Córdoba in 1236 and Seville in 1248—leaving only the Muslim enclave of Granada as a tributary state in the south. Marinid invasions from north Africa in the 13th and 14th centuries failed to re-establish Muslim rule. Also in the 13th century, the kingdom of Aragon, formed by Aragon, Catalonia and Valencia expanded its reach across the Mediterranean to Sicily. Around this time the universities of Palencia (1212/1263) and Salamanca (1218/1254) were established; among the earliest in Europe. The Black Death of 1348 and 1349 devastated Spain.

In 1469, the crowns of the Christian kingdoms of Castile and Aragon were united by the marriage of Isabella and Ferdinand. In 1478 began the final stage of the conquest of Canary Islands and in 1492, these united kingdoms captured Granada, ending the last remnant of a 781-year presence of Islamic rule in Iberia. The Treaty of Granada guaranteed religious tolerance toward Muslims. The year 1492 also marked the arrival in the New World of Christopher Columbus, during a voyage funded by Isabella. That same year, Spain's Jews were ordered to convert to Catholicism or face expulsion from Spanish territories during the Spanish Inquisition. Not long after, Muslims were also expelled under the same conditions.

As Renaissance New Monarchs, Isabella and Ferdinand centralized royal power at the expense of local nobility, and the word España - whose root is the ancient name Hispania - began to be commonly used to designate the whole of the two kingdoms. With their wide-ranging political, legal, religious and military reforms, Spain emerged as the first world power.

Source: Wikipedia Encyclopedia

Spain hotels
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Spain

About Spain
Geography of Spain
Climate of Spain

Spain History
Prehistory and Pre-Roman Peoples
Roman Empire and the
Germanic Kingdoms

Muslim Iberia
Fall of Muslim Rule and Unification
Imperial Spain
Napoleonic Rule and Its Consequences
Spanish-American War
20th Century of Spain
21st Century of Spain

Spain Politics
Constitution of Spain
Government of Spain
Administrative Divisions
Foreign Relations of Spain

Spain Economy
Demographics of Spain
Immigration to Spain
People / Languages of Spain
Spain Religions

Culture of Spain
Spain Schools
Literature of Spain
Real Academia Española
Art of Spain
Cinema in Spain
Spain Architecture
Spain Music
Cuisines in Spain
Sports in Spain
Spain Holidays

Spain Places and Attractions
Murcia Major Attractions

Spain World Heritage Sites
Granada Heritage Sites
Cordoba Heritage Sites
Seville Heritage Sites
Úbeda & Baeza Heritage Sites
Aragon Heritage Sites
Galicia Heritage Sites
Cantabria Heritage Sites
Asturias Heritage Sites
Ibiza Heritage Sites
Basque Country Heritage Sites
Canary Islands Heritage Sites
Toledo Heritage Sites
Castilla La Mancha Heritage Sites
Castile & Leon Heritage Sites
Catalonia Heritage Sites
Extremadura Heritage Sites
La Rioja Heritage Sites
Madrid Heritage Sites



About Kayaking

Kayaking is the use of a Kayak for moving across water. Over the years, kayaking has evolved into a popular water sport. It is distinguished from canoeing by the sitting position of the paddler and the number of blades on the paddle. A kayak is defined by the International Canoe Federation (the world sanctioning body) as a boat where the paddler faces forward, legs in front, using a double-bladed paddle. Most kayaks have closed decks, although "sit-on-top" and inflatable kayaks are growing in popularity as well. More articles about About Kayaking


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