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Kingdom of Yugoslavia and World War II of Croatia

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Croatia, Kingdom of Yugoslavia and World War II

On 29 October 1918, the Croatian Sabor declared independence and vested its sovereignty in the new State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs. Pressured by Italian army which is entering territory of new state from south and west State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs has started fast negotiations with Kingdom of Serbia and on 23.11. 1918 delegation was sent to Belgrade for proclamation of union. From national assembly of State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs delegation has received 11 points which need to be fulfield for creation of future state. Most important of these point is the first which refers for the need of a constitution of the new state, which was voted on in parliament with two thirds majority. Eventually, a constitutionfor centralized state was voted with 50% + 1 vote majority and caused the end of state autonomy. This decision has created public outcry between Croats, which started a political upheaval for the restoration of state autonomy under the leadership of Croatian Peasant Party.

The unhealthy political situation in Yugoslavia became much worse after Stjepan Radić, the president of CPP, was killed in Yugoslav parliament in 1928 by Serbian ultra-nationalist Puniša Račić. The ensuing chaotic period ended the next year with the banning of all political parties and proclamation of a Yugoslav king: Alexander dictatorship. The next 4 years Yugoslav regime was described by Albert Einstein as a "horrible brutality which is being practised upon the Croatian People". Period of king brutal rule will end around 1 year after Vladko Maček next leader of Croatian Peasant Party has ended in prison with killing of Alexander in plot organized by Croatian right wing extremist movement Ustaše. Maček is then released from prison and Yugoslav political situation was then restored to situation before Stjepan Radić killings with Croatian demand for autonomy and Yugoslav government decisions in protection of centralized state. Croatian question will be solved only on August 26, 1939 with Cvetković-Maček Agreement when Croatia has recieved autonomy, and Maček has become Yugoslav vice-primeminister. Possibility for peacefull life between born in 1939 will last only until 1941 when Germany has invaded Yugoslavia .

The German invasion lasted little more than ten days, ending with the unconditional surrender of the Royal Yugoslav Army on April 17. On territory of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina Nazi Germany will created puppet state called Independent State of Croatia. In beginning they will offer state leadership to Vladko Maček, but after he has refused position and ended in prison leadership has given to Ante Pavelić and Ustaše extremists which will start reing of terror. Only day after entering Zagreb Ante Pavelić has on 17 April 1941 proclaimed a law that all people who offend, or try to offend, the Croatian nation are guilty of treason — a crime punishable by death.[18] and shortly after that in first days of May minister of education, Mile Budak, in which he declared: "We will kill one third of all Serbs. We will deport another third, and the rest of them will be forced to convert to Catholicism." In the end at least 330,000 Serbs, 30,000 Jews and 30,000 Roma were killed during the NDH (today territory of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina). Answer to this reign of terror has been massive uprising which will start on June 22, 1941 with creation of 1st Sisak Partisan Detachment. Leadership of Yugoslav partisan movement will be in hands of Croat Josip Broz Tito which policy of brotherhood and unity will in the end defeat Chetniks forces led by nationalistic hate towards Croat and Muslims and Ustaše forces led by nationalistic hate towards Serbs.

Source: Wikipedia Encyclopedia

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